Microsoft Windows: Definition and explanations, restoration or reinstallation of Microsoft Windows on a Dell computer | Dell Congo

Restoration or reinstallation of Microsoft Windows on a Dell computer

Whether you play, study, manage a business or be responsible for a home, Windows 11 helps you perform your tasks. Discover new simplified features for all your ways of working, learning and playing.

Microsoft Windows – Definition

Windows (Windows is a range of operating systems produced by Microsoft, mainly intended. )) is a range of operating systems produced by Microsoft, mainly intended for PC compatible machines. He is the replacement for MS-DOS (MS-DOS (abbreviation of Microsoft Disk Operating System) is an operating system. )) . Since the 1990s, with the release of Windows 95, its commercial success (a salesperson (a salesperson) is a person whose job is linked to the sale.) to equip personal computers is such that it then has quasi-monopoly status.

The Windows range is made up of several branches (see. The chapter Versions)).

  • The first (from Windows 1 to 3.11) was born in 1985. Two branches then followed in parallel:
  • The second (second is the feminine of the second adjective, who comes immediately after the first or who. ) Branch, called NT branch (Windows NT, then 2000) appeared in 1993. It is a complete rewriting of the system, intended for personal computers as well as servers. It has mainly developed (in geometry, the developed of a plane curve is the place of its centers. ) in the professional environment.
  • The third branch appeared in 1995 with Windows 95, then Windows 98 and Windows Me. It was better known to the general public and aimed to replace the first, of which it was a 32 -bit evolution.
  • Windows XP, released in 2001, continues the NT branch by merging with the Windows 9X branch: it covers both the general public and the professionals, in two different versions. Windows Vista is a new evolution. Today, only the NT branch remains.
  • Windows Vista, released in 2006
  • Finally, Windows Mobile (Windows Mobile is the generic name given to different versions of. ) is planned to be used on light and portable equipment (personal assistant, telephone (the phone is a communication system, initially designed to transmit the voice. ) portable. )).


16 -bit branch

  • Windows 1.0: November 1985
  • Windows 2: December 1987
  • Windows 2 (Windows 2, released in 1987, was a second attempt from Microsoft to publish a. )) .10 for 286: December 1987
  • Windows 2.10 for 386: December 1987
  • Windows 2.11 .
  • Windows 3.0: May 1990
  • Windows 3.1 (Janus): April 1992
  • Windows for Workgroups 3.1 (Sparta): October 1992
  • Windows for Workgroups 3.11 (snowball): November 1993
  • Windows for Workgroups 3.2 (in Chinese only):

The first versions of Windows were launched from back (in anatomy, in vertebrate animals, among which humans, the back is the part. ) and used the file system (a file system (File System or Filesystem in English) or management system. ) from behind, which gave Windows the reputation of being only an interface (an interface is an area, real or virtual which separates two elements. The interface. ) graphic on a back nucleus. However, Windows immediately had the functions of an operating system, including a clean executable format, multitasking process management (an operating system is multitasking (in English: multi-task) if it. ) cooperative, virtual memory management (in computer science, the virtual memory mechanism has been developed in. ), and pilots to manage the display (the display designates the application of a script paper surface in a public place (and not the. ), printing, keyboard, sound, etc. Windows 2.10 For 386 also took advantage of the new capacities of the Intel 80386, such as the placement of the nucleus in protected mode and the execution of back programs in a virtual machine (the original direction of virtual machine (or virtual machine (VM) in English ) is the creation of. ) in virtual mode 8086.

Windows could be used with other backs than Microsoft’s MS-DOS, as IBM (International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) PC-DOS is an American multinational company. ) or Dr-Dos (Dr-Dos is an operating system of the company Digital Research founded by Gary Kildall.), subject to passing (the genre pass was created by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques. ) In addition to the deterrent messages issued during installation. From Windows 95, the graphical interface became commercially associated with MS-DOS. This motivated a lawsuit between Caldera, publisher at the time of Dr-Dos, which also made it possible to run Windows, and Microsoft. Caldera believed that Microsoft thus adopted an anti -competitive practice of forced sale, without real technical foundation.

From Windows XP, we can consider that the back has Bel (named in honor of the inventor Alexandre Graham Bell, the Bel is unit of. ) and well disappeared from the consumer operating systems of Microsoft, although an emulation remains available.

32 -bit branch

Names of codes known in parentheses

  • Windows 95 (Chicago): August 1995
  • Windows 98 (Memphis): June 1998
  • Windows 98 SE: May 1999
  • Windows Me (Millennium Edition): September 2000

In addition to the development of Windows NT, Microsoft decided to edit an operating system for the general public, which would take up certain advantages of Windows NT everything (all inclusive as a set of what exists is often interpreted as the world or. ) by remaining compatible with previous versions of Windows and MS-DOS.

Windows 95 and following systems were 32 -bit changes in Windows 3 versions.0 and 3.1. They are all built on the same pilot model: VXD (for users of Microsoft Windows, a VXD is a “Virtual Device Driver” (pilot of. )) . In 1995, Windows 95 has made several improvements: pre -emptive multitasking (pre -emptive multitasking treatment is a form of multitasking treatment. His goal is to. ), the network layer (a computer network is a set of equipment linked together to exchange. ) inspired by that of NT, a new graphical interface. It is not a new operating system, but an evolution of Windows 3.1. Windows 95 had to be able to operate on entry -level configurations with 4 MB of RAM (RAM, System or volatile memory, also called RAM. )) .

This first version, known during its development under the name of code “Chicago” and released under the name of Windows 95, has undergone several developments, including Windows 98 and Windows Me (Millennium Edition), which made it possible to confirm the popularity of systems Microsoft operating. These different versions have suffered from a reputation for instability and vulnerability (in risk management, the vulnerability of an organization or an area. ) to attacks by networks. The transition to the NT family for consumer versions took place with Windows XP, more stable and less vulnerable.

Windows branch nt

Names of codes known in parentheses

  • Windows NT 3.1: August 1993
  • Windows NT 3.5 (Daytona): September 1994
  • Windows NT 3.51: June 1995
  • Windows NT 4.0: August 1996
  • Windows 2000 (Cairo): February 2000
  • Windows 2000 SP1: August 2000
  • Windows 2000 SP2: May 2001
  • Windows XP (Whistler, born from fusion (in physics and metallurgy, fusion is the passage of a solid body of state to the state. ) of the project (a project is an irreversible commitment of uncertain result, not reproducible to. ) general public Neptune and the professional project Odyssey): October 2001
  • Windows 2000 SP3: July 2002
  • Windows XP SP1: September 2002
  • Windows XP MEDIA Center edition: 2002
  • Windows Server 2003: May 2003
  • Windows 2000 SP4: July 2003
  • Windows XP Starter Edition: August 2004
  • Windows XP SP2: August 2004
  • Windows XP Home Edition N (Windows XP Family Edition): April 2005
  • Windows XP 64: April 2005
  • Windows XP MEDIA Center edition 2005: August 2005
  • Windows Vista (Longhorn): November 2006 for companies; January 30, 2007 for the general public.
  • Windows Server 2008: announced in February 2008
  • Windows XP SP3: Expected for March 2008
  • Windows Vista SP1 (Windows Fiji: expected for March 2008)
  • Windows Seven (Blackcomb / Vienna): expected for 2010

The NT branch (New technology), is a family of operating systems redeveloped from zero (the zero figure (from the Italian Zero, derived from Arabic SIFR. ), although it is an evolution of the Windows API often called Win32. Windows Nt was born from the divorce of Microsoft and IBM on the development of the OS/2 operating system (OS/2 is an operating system created by Microsoft and IBM, which then A. )) . Windows NT has been developed to compete with the systems used in business.

The nucleus would be inspired by Vax VMS and UNIX (Unix (brand officially registered as Unix, sometimes also written as Unix with. ) and brings new concepts, such as the concept of object (in general, the word object (from the Latin objectum, 1361) designates an entity defined in. ) allowing uniform use. Originally designed for X86 family processors (the X86 family brings together microprocessors compatible with the Intel Instructions game. ) (from the Intel 80386), MIPS, DEC Alpha and PowerPC (PowerPC, sometimes abbreviated PPC, is a range of microprocessors derived from. )) . Only 32 -bit versions existed for these processors, despite the fact that some were 64 bits. Today, families X86, X86-64 and Itanium (Itanium is a 64-bit processor developed by Intel in cooperation with. ) are supported, in 64 bits for the last two. The successive judgment of the support of the various processors is due to economic reasons.

It allows preemptive multitasking, multithreading, a separate execution model (each process has a memory area (in general, memory is the storage of information. It is also the memory. ) separated, without access to that of other processes). An anecdote exists on the name, VMS ⇒ V+1 m+1 S+1 ⇒ Wnt.

Its availability (the availability of equipment or a system is a performance measure that. ) For the general public took place with the release of Windows XP, the first family version to be based on this unified branch after the success of Windows 2000 in its professional version.

Windows branch this

  • Windows CE 1: November 1996
  • Windows CE 2: November 1997
  • Windows CE 2.1: July 1998
  • Windows CE 3: 1999
  • Windows this .Net: 2000
  • Pocket PC 2000: 2001
  • Pocket PC 2002: 2002
  • Windows Mobile 2003: 2003
  • Windows Mobile 2003 SE (Second Edition): 2004
  • Windows Mobile 5.0 (code name: Magneto): 2005
  • Windows Mobile 6.0: 2007

Seeking to win on the growing market for personal assistants (PDA), Microsoft has developed a light version of its operating system and has teamed up with large manufacturers of personal computers to penetrate this market until then dominated by Palm. Products operating this type of platform are called pocket pc. Adapted to the constraints of these machines (display, memory), Windows this has an interface similar to that of operating systems for PC, although its core is different.

With the growing sophistication of household appliances, the avowed goal (in the Middle Ages, the lawyer was a layman leading the vassals of an ecclesiastical institution. ) of Microsoft is to install Windows CE (or a later version) on all home devices (a house is a medium -sized building intended for the home of a family. ), thus creating a universe (the universe is the whole of everything that exists and the laws that govern it.) home automation (home automation is the set of electronics techniques, physics of. ) integrated. Windows versions are Ores (Ores, the operator of the gas & electricity networks is the operator of. ) and already available for mobile phones. Since 2003, the name “Pocket PC” has been replaced by “Windows Mobile”. So there is Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PC and Windows Mobile 2003 for smartphone.

The binary from the compilation of a program written in Microsoft C# language is automatically compatible with this platform, if we follow certain restrictions (from libraries linked in particular). However, you must check the presence of the framework (in computer programming, a framework is a kit of structural software components, which. )) .Net on the target machine in order to be able to execute it.

File system

The FAT (or Fat32) file system inherited from MS-DOS is the only one usable in 16 and 32-bit branches to Windows Me. It is with the introduction of NTFS of Windows NT that Windows has a more modern and more secure file system (with journalization (in English logging) is the action of raising in a newspaper (in English log). ) metadata, the support of several streams by file (a file is a place where cards are stored. It may be a piece of furniture, a room, a. ), rights management, etc.)).

The FAT 32 system cannot manage files of more than 4 gigabytes and is enormously fragmented. The NTFS system developed for Windows XP manages files up to more than 16 tera-octets and is less sensitive to fragmentation.

Systems abandoned by Microsoft

Microsoft has developed other systems than those we know, however the latter have been abandoned for various reasons

  • Windows Neptune (Windows Neptune is a version of Microsoft Windows which was to be originally the opus. ) Designed at the base to give a family version of Windows 2000, is in a way the embryonic project of Windows XP.

Systems not distributed by Microsoft

Some other systems ensure more or less complete compatibility with Windows:

  • Reactos (Reactos is a draft free operating system wanting to. ) is an operating system in development aimed at being compatible with NT 5 [1] .
  • Wine is a set (in theory of sets, a set intuitively designates a collection. ) Libraries to run certain software designed for Windows on UNIX systems, plus HCL files (hydrochloric acid, case number 7647-01-0 Hydrogen chloride,. ) which are in the support folder of the Windows 2000 installation CD.

A controversial operating system

During the 1990s, in particular with version 95, Windows acquired nine tenths of the operating systems and office automation market market for PC. It is currently installed on 95 % of personal computers [2] . Most computers sold have a Windows system preinstalled by the manufacturer (OEM license). Consequently, his competitors accuse him of monopoly and unfair commercial practices, and inspired antitrust prosecution against him, in many countries (countries comes from the Latin Pagus which designated a territorial and tribal subdivision of extent of extent. ) and especially in the United States and Europe (Europe is a terrestrial region which can be considered as a. )) .

Windows is also a technically very criticized product by some. This system is notably accused of its instability (see “blue screens”) and its vulnerability. However, its popularity has never been threatened, mainly because individual customers cannot refuse to buy these linked sales software. This competitive advantage has led Microsoft to have an undeniable cultural supremacy, the general public not even imagining that a personal computer (a personal computer, also called microcomputer or individual computer, is a. ) May work without windows while there are alternatives (alternatives (original title: Destiny Three Times) is a novel by Fritz Leiber published. ), commercial or not, which can meet his needs as Mac OS (for Macintosh Operating System) is the name of the Apple operating system for its. ), the many Linux distributions (in the strict sense, Linux is the name of the kernel of free, multitasking operating system. ) and FreeBSD systems (FreeBSD is a free UNIX operating system. The name comes from the association on the one hand from. ) or Amigaos (Amigaos is the native operating system for Amiga computers, launched in 1984 and. ) For example.

These subordinate selling practices of Microsoft operating systems when purchasing new computers mean that users consider these Windows software, whatever their faults and qualities, as “racketeering”. [3]

In January 2004, the European Competition Commissioner Mario Monti ordered Microsoft to remedy systematic supply (in life sciences and natural history, the systematic is the science that has for. ) its multimedia player (a multimedia player is a device or an application that allows you to return. )) Windows Media Player In Windows XP. Folding this requirement, Microsoft wanted to sell Windows Limited Media Edition at the same price as the normal version with WMP. This decision did not please the commission, which claimed both that the company provides this product to “improve the situation (in geography, the situation is a spatial concept allowing the relative location of a. ) from the market “but didn’t want her to know. Folding to this last requirement, Microsoft therefore offered, from June 14, 2004, the software (in computer science, software is a set of information relating to treatments. ) Amputated at great cost under the name of Windows XP “N”, and as you would expect, no one bought it. It turns out that not only Real Player, who had inspired these unfair competition lawsuits, remains competitive, but that he himself uses Windows Media Player resources to operate to operate.

Some consider that its dominant position in the individual market is due to Microsoft’s presumed willing to make it incompatible with the other operating systems (in particular by respecting very little standards allowing interoperability (interoperability is the capacity that has a product or. ) Between programs) and to the fact that it is most often provided (the Foúrnoi Korséon (Greek: φούρνοι. ) with computers to purchase. Microsoft’s quasi-monopoly in the field of operating systems for PC encourages application developers to offer their software for the Windows platform, because it is the safest way to touch (touch, also called tact or taction, is one of the five senses of man or animal. ) many customers, which is an important source of economy for them in their development and marketing. Microsoft therefore renders them the service to standardize their market, better than a regulatory authority could do, always less well informed. The advantage is reciprocal (the reciprocal is an involvement relationship.), since it makes Microsoft Windows (Windows (literally “windows” in English) is a range of. ) more interesting for their customers. Another characteristic of operating systems is that programs that work with one do not necessarily work with the other. Thus, while Microsoft arranges so that the old programs operate with its new Windows systems, a person who wants to leave Windows must renew his software. In addition, it is difficult for a programmer (in computer science, a developer (or programmer) is a computer scientist who produces software in. ) to carry your program made for Windows to another operating system.

There is to remedy these problems of libraries facilitating portability (depending on the context, the word portability can have several meanings 🙂 (OpenGL, Openal (OpenAn (Open Audio Library) is a multi-platform software library providing a. ), GTK (GTK+ (The Gimp Tool Kit) is a set of software libraries, that is to say a set. ), QT, SDL …). Other libraries make it possible to operate Windows (Win32) applications on UNIX type systems (such as GNU/Linux or FreeBSD), for example Wine. The use of these libraries is transparent for the user.

Notes and references

  1. ↑ “Reactos® is a free and free advanced project aimed at creating an operating system available and compatible with Microsoft Windows® XP. “”
  2. ↑ ZDNET Writing, “Operating Systems: Windows slight decline in front of Mac OS and Linux”, 2007. Accessed October 25, 2007
  3. ↑ See for example on this subject the site http: // www.racketeel.Info which offers a petition against this linked sales practice, illegal in France according to article L122-1 of the Consumer Code.

Restoration or reinstallation of Microsoft Windows on a Dell computer

Consult the options for restoring the computer, resetting the Windows installation or restoration of Windows factory settings on a Dell computer.

Summary: Consult the options for restoring the computer, resetting the Windows installation or restoration of Windows factory settings on a Dell computer. . Show more to show less

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  1. Computer restoration using Enthustessist OS Recovery
  2. Restoring the operating system using a DELL operating system recovery
  3. Other recovery and resettlement options
    • Windows 11 and Windows 10


Reinstalling the operating system can solve many software problems on the computer, including slowness or infection by malware.


Computer restoration using Enthustessist OS Recovery

When your computer meets several start -up failures from the operating system, Supportassist OS Recovery starts automatically on supported computers. This recovery environment makes it possible to diagnose hardware problems, save files, repair the computer or restore its default settings.

Dell recommends using supporting bone recovery on supported computers. To find out more, see this article: Restoration of your computer using support OS Recovery.

Restoring the operating system using a DELL operating system recovery

To repair or restore your operating system in accordance with the original factory image, see this article: Download and use of the Dell recovery image of the Microsoft Windows operating system. Here you can learn how to create a USB recovery medium using any Windows computer.

You do not have a Windows computer in working order to create a USB recovery medium ? Consult this article: Download and use of the DELL operating system recovery in Ubuntu or Linux (in English).

Other recovery and resettlement options

Windows 11 or Windows 10

To obtain the list of Windows 11 or Windows 10 restoration or resettlement options, refer to the following articles:

Reset your system under Windows 11 or Windows 10

Watch this video to find out how to reset your Windows 11 or Windows 10 computer.

Duration: 00:34
When available, subtitles language settings can be chosen using the Settings (Settings) or CC icon of this video player.

Execute a restoration of the system under Windows 11 or Windows 10

Watch this YouTube video to find out how to run a Windows 11 or Windows 10 system restoration.

Duration: 02:33
When available, subtitles language settings can be selected using the Settings (Settings) or CC icon of this video player.

Windows 8.1

To reinstall Windows 8.1 Manually, consult this article in the Dell Knowledge Base: Installation and upgrade instructions for Windows 8/8.1.

To restore system in Windows 8.1, Consult this article from the Dell Knowledge Base: Use of system restore under Microsoft Windows.

Windows 7

To find out more about the use of computer restoration points, reset of factory settings or manual installation of Windows 7 on your Dell computer, consult this article in the Dell Knowledge Base: Restoration, Reset Windows 7 default or resettlement parameters on your Dell computer (in English).

Additional Information

Recommended items

Here are some recommended items for you.

Support out of warranty

Out of Warranty ? No problem. Consult the Dell, then enter your DELL serial number and consult our offers.

Noticed : offers are only available for customers who have a personal computer at UNITED STATES, At Canada, At United Kingdom, in France, in Germany and in China. Server and storage products are not affected.

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Chromebox, Alienware, Inspiron, Retired Models, Optiplex, Vosro, XPS, G Series, Chromebook, G Series, Alienware, Inspiron, Latitude, Vostro, XPS, Retired Models, Latitude Tablets, Surface, XPS Tablets, Fixed Works,

Facilitate your daily life

Whether you play, study, manage a business or be responsible for a home, Windows 11 helps you perform your tasks. Discover new simplified features for all your ways of working, learning and playing.

Facilitate your daily life

Whether you play, study, manage a business or be responsible for a home, Windows 11 helps you perform your tasks. Discover new simplified features for all your ways of working, learning and playing.

Discover the new features of Windows 11 people who use Windows 11 features to play, study, manage a business or take care of their home.

Facilitate your daily life

Whether you play, study, manage a business or be responsible for a home, Windows 11 helps you perform your tasks. Discover new simplified features for all your ways of working, learning and playing.

The best windows so far

You have a list of tasks long like the arm ? Windows 11 can help you overcome it.

Here is Windows 11

Learn to use the new features of Windows 11 and find out what is the best Windows to date.

Upgrade your experience

Find out how to get Windows 11 on your current 4 PC, or buy a new PC that can run Windows 11.


You need helps to transfer files, reset a password or upgrade to Windows 11 ? Discover the Windows support page to find useful items about everything that concerns Windows. You have a specific problem to solve ? Ask your question to the Microsoft community.

Synchronize your PC and your phone

Microsoft Mobile Connected allows you to make calls, answer messages and check your phone notifications from your PC 5 .

Discussion with Bing AI

Thanks to the latest technological advances in the field of AI, the new Bing gives you access to research, navigation and conversation to take advantage of the best of the web start by applying from your Windows taskbar to find Complete and relevant results. During interactive exchange, ask more questions to refine your search. And find inspiration with suggestions to prepare everything you want to create. Exploring the web has never been easier.

Find the right device

Discover a selection of new PCs or ask for help to choose the computer best suited to your needs.